{smcl}
{* 30sep2004}{...}
{hline}
help for {hi:mvis7}, {hi:uvis7}{right:Patrick Royston}
{hline}
{title:Multivariate and univariate imputation sampling}
{p 8 17 2}
{cmd:mvis7}
{it:mainvarlist}
{cmd:using} {it:filename}[{cmd:.dta}]
[{cmd:if} {it:exp}]
[{cmd:in} {it:range}]
[{it:weight}]
{cmd:,}
{cmd:m(}{it:#}{cmd:)}
[
{cmdab:bo:ot}[{cmd:(}{it:varlist}{cmd:)}]
{cmd:cc(}{it:ccvarlist}{cmd:)}
{cmdab:cm:d(}{it:cmdlist}{cmd:)}
{cmdab:cy:cles(}{it:#}{cmd:)}
{cmdab:dr:aw}[{cmd:(}{it:varlist}{cmd:)}]
{cmdab:g:enmiss(}{it:string}{cmd:)}
{cmdab:i:d(}{it:string}{cmd:)}
{cmdab:nocons:tant}
{cmd:on(}{it:varlist}{cmd:)}
{cmd:replace}
{cmdab:se:ed(}{it:#}{cmd:)}
]
{p 8 17 2}
{cmd:uvis7}
{it:regression_cmd}
{it:yvar}
{it:xvarlist}
[{cmd:if} {it:exp}]
[{cmd:in} {it:range}]
[{it:weight}]
{cmd:,}
{cmdab:g:en(}{it:newvarname}{cmd:)}
[
{cmdab:bo:ot}
{cmdab:dr:aw}
{cmd:replace}
{cmdab:se:ed(}{it:#}{cmd:)}
]
{p 4 4 2}
where
{p 8 8 2}
{it:regression_cmd} may be
{help logistic},
{help logit},
{help mlogit},
{help ologit},
or
{help regress}.
{p 4 4 2}
All weight types supported by {it:regression_cmd} are allowed; see {help weights}.
{title:Description}
{p 4 4 2}
{cmd:mvis7} ({cmd:m}ulti{cmd:v}ariate {cmd:i}mputation {cmd:s}ampling) imputes missing values
in {it:mainvarlist} by using switching regression, an
iterative multivariable regression technique. Sets of imputed and non-imputed variables are
stored to a new file called {it:filename}. Any number of complete imputations may be created.
{p 4 4 2}
{cmd:uvis7} ({cmd:u}ni{cmd:v}ariate {cmd:i}mputation {cmd:s}ampling) imputes
missing values in the single variable {it:yvar} based on multiple regression
on {it:xvarlist}. {cmd:uvis7} is called repeatedly by {cmd:mvis7}
in a regression switching mode to perform multivariate imputation.
{p 4 4 2}
The missing observations are assumed to be "missing at random" (MAR) or
"missing completely at random" (MCAR), according to the jargon. See for example van Buuren {it:et al}
(1999) for an explanation of these concepts.
{title:Options for {cmd:mvis7}}
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:m(}{it:#}{cmd:)} is not optional. {it:#} is the number of imputations required
(minimum 1, no upper limit).
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:boot}[{cmd:(}{it:varlist}{cmd:)}] instructs that each member of {it:varlist},
a subset of {it:mainvarlist}, be imputed with the {cmd:boot} option of {cmd:uvis7}
activated. If {cmd:(}{it:varlist}{cmd:)} is omitted then all members of {it:mainvarlist}
with missing observations are imputed using the {cmd:boot} option of {cmd:uvis7}.
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:cc(}{it:ccvarlist}{cmd:)} prevents imputation of missing data in {it:mainvarlist} for
cases in which any member of {it:ccvarlist} has a missing value. "cc" signifies
"complete case". Note that members of {it:ccvarlist} are used for imputation if they appear
in {it:mainvarlist}, but not otherwise. Use of this option is equivalent to entering
{cmd:if} {cmd:~missing(}{it:var1}{cmd:) &} {cmd:~missing(}{it:var2}{cmd:) ..., where
{it:var1}, {it:var2}, ... denote the members of {it:ccvarlist}.
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:cmd(}{it:cmdlist}{cmd:)} defines the regression commands to be used
for each variable in {it:mainvarlist}, when it becomes the dependent variable in the
switching regression procedure used by {cmd:uvis7} (see {it:Remarks}).
The first item in {it:cmdlist} may be a command such as {cmd:regress}
or may have the syntax {it:varlist}{cmd::}{it:cmd}, specifying that command {it:cmd}
applies to all the variables in {it:varlist}. Subsequent items in {it:cmdlist}
must follow the latter syntax, and each item should be followed by a comma.
{p 8 8 2}
The default {it:cmd} for a variable is {cmd:logit} when there are two distinct values,
{cmd:mlogit} when there are 3-5 and {cmd:regress} otherwise.
{p 8 18 2} Example: {cmd:cmd(regress)} specifies that all variables are
to be imputed by {cmd:regress}, over-riding the defaults
{p 8 18 2} Example: {cmd:cmd(x1 x2:logit, x3:regress)} specifies that {cmd:x1} and
{cmd:x2} are to be imputed by {cmd:logit}, {cmd:x3} by {cmd:regress} and all others
by their default choices
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:cycles(}{it:#}{cmd:)} determines the number of cycles of regression switching to be
carried out. Default {it:#} is 10.
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:draw}[{cmd:(}{it:varlist}{cmd:)}] instructs that each member of {it:varlist} be imputed with
the {cmd:draw} option of {cmd:uvis7}. If {cmd:(}{it:varlist}{cmd:)} is omitted then all relevant variables are
imputed with the {cmd:boot} option of {cmd:uvis7}.
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:genmiss(}{it:string}{cmd:)} creates an indicator variable for the
missingness of data in any variable in {it:mainvarlist} for which at least one value
has been imputed. The indicator variable is
set to missing for observations excluded by {cmd:if}, {cmd:in}, etc.
The indicator variable for {it:xvar} is named {it:string}{it:xvar}.
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:id(}{it:string}{cmd:)} creates a variable called {it:string} containing
the original sort order of the data. Default {it:string}: {cmd:_i}.
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:noconstant} suppresses the regression constant in all regressions.
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:on(}{it:varlist}{cmd:)} changes the operation of {cmd:mvis7} in a major way.
With this option, {cmd:uvis7} imputes each member of {it:mainvarlist} univariately
on {it:varlist}. This provides a convenient way of producing multiple imputations
when imputation for each variable in {it:mainvarlist} is to be done univariately
on a set of complete predictors.
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:replace} permits {it:filename} to be overwritten with new data.
{cmd:replace} may not be abbreviated.
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:seed(}{it:#}{cmd:)} sets the random number seed to {it:#}.
To reproduce a set of imputations, the same random number seed should be used.
Default {it:#}: 0, meaning no seed is set by the program.
{title:Options for {cmd:uvis7}}
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:gen(}{it:newvar}{cmd:)} is not optional. {it:newvar} contains original
(non-missing) and imputed (originally missing) values of {it:yvar}.
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:boot} invokes a bootstrap method for creating imputed values (see Remarks).
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:draw} draws imputations at random from the posterior distribution of the
missing values of {it:yvar}, conditional on the observed values and the members
of {it:xvarlist}. The default method of imputation is by prediction matching
(see Remarks).
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:replace} permits {it:newvar} (see {cmd:gen(}{it:newvar}{cmd:)}) to be overwritten with new data.
{cmd:replace} may not be abbreviated.
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:noconstant} suppresses the regression constant in all regressions.
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:seed(}{it:#}{cmd:)} sets the random number seed to {it:#}.
See {it:Remarks} for comments on how to ensure reproducible imputations
by using the {cmd:seed()} option.
Default {it:#}: 0, meaning no seed is set by the program.
{title:Remarks}
{p 4 4 2}
{cmd:uvis7} imputes {it:yvar} from {it:xvarlist} according to the following algorithm
(see van Buuren et al (1999) section 3.2 for further technical details):
{p 8 12 2}
1. Estimate the vector of coefficients (beta) and the residual variance
by regressing the non-missing values of {it:yvar} on {it:xvarlist}.
Predict the fitted values {it:etaobs} at the non-missing observations of {it:yvar}.
{p 8 12 2}
2. Draw at random a value (sigma_star) from the posterior distribution of the residual
standard deviation.
{p 8 12 2}
3. Draw at random a value (beta_star) from the posterior distribution of beta, allowing,
through sigma_star, for uncertainty in beta.
{p 8 12 2}
4. Use beta_star to predict the fitted values {it:etamis}
at the missing observations of {it:yvar}.
{p 8 12 2}
5. (Prediction matching) For each missing observation of {it:yvar} with
prediction {it:etamis}, find the non-missing observation of {it:yvar}
whose prediction ({it:etaobs}) on observed data is closest to {it:etamis}.
This closest non-missing observation is used to impute the missing value of {it:yvar}.
{p 4 4 2}
With the {cmd:boot} option, a variant on this algorithm is used. beta_star
is estimated by regressing {it:yvar} on {it:xvarlist} after taking a bootstrap sample
of the non-missing observations. This has the advantage of robustness since the
distribution of beta is no longer assumed to be muultivariate normal.
{p 4 4 2}
With the {cmd:draw} option, another variant on the algorithm is used. The
imputed values are predicted directly from beta_star, sigma_star and the covariates.
This option assumes that {it:yvar} is Normally distributed, given the
covariates. The method is not robust to departures from Normality
and may produce implausible imputations. It is provided
mainly for pedagogic reaons, and also to deal with special
situations in which the assumption of Normality is known to be reasonable.
{p 4 4 2}
Note that {cmd:uvis7} will not impute observations for which a value
of a variable in {it:xvarlist} is missing. Only complete cases
within {it:xvarlist} are used.
{p 4 4 2}
Missing data for ordered (or unordered) categorical covariates should
be imputed by using the {cmd:ologit} (or {cmd:mlogit}) command. In these cases,
prediction matching is done on the scale of the mean absolute difference
in the predicted class probabilities, preceded by logit transformation.
{p 4 4 2}
{cmd:mvis7} carries out multivariate imputation in {it:mainvarlist} using regression
switching (van Buuren et al 1999) as follows:
{p 8 12 2}
1. Ignore any observations for which {it:mainvarlist} has only missing values, or for
which any member of {it:ccvarlist} (if specified) has a missing value.
{p 8 12 2}
2. For each variable in {it:mainvarlist} with any missing data, randomly order that
variable and replicate the observed values across the missing cases. This
step initialises the iterative procedure by ensuing that no relevant values
are missing.
{p 8 12 2}
3. For each variable in {it:mainvarlist} in turn, impute missing values by applying
{cmd:uvis7} with the remaining variables as covariates.
{p 8 12 2}
4. Repeat step 3 {cmd:cycles()} times, replacing the imputed values with updated
values at the end of each cycle.
{p 4 4 2}
A single imputation sample is created for each variable with any relevant
missing values.
{p 4 4 2}
Van Buuren recommends {cmd:cycles(20)} but goes on to say that 10 or even 5
iterations are probably sufficient. We have chosen a compromise default of 10.
{p 4 4 2}
"Multiple imputation" (MI) implies the creation and analysis of several
imputed datasets. To do this, one would run {cmd:mvis7} with {it:m} set
to a suitable number, for example 5. To obtain final estimates
of the parameters of interest and their standard errors,
one would fit a model in
each imputation and carry out the appropriate post-MI averaging procedure
on the results from the {it:m} separate imputations. A suitable
estimation tool for this purpose is {help micombine}.
{title:Further comments}
{p 4 4 2}
An interesting application of MI is to investigate possible models, for example
prognostic models, in which selection of influential variables is required
(Clark & Altman 2003). For example, the stability of the final model across the
imputation samples is of interest.
{p 4 4 2}
In survival analysis, it is recommended to include the log of the survival
time and the censoring indicator in the variables to be used for imputation.
Van Buuren et al (1999) give a detailed discussion of the different types
of covariate that can be included in the imputation model and discuss the
important issue of how to deal with variables which are missing completely at
random (MCAR), missing at random (MAR) and missing not at random (MNAR).
{p 4 4 2}
In the present implementation of multivariate imputation sampling in {cmd:mvis7},
all the variables in {it:varlist} are used for imputation of all the others. This
restriction could be lifted, but it is not clear that the additional
complexity would pay off.
{p 4 4 2}
See also Van Buuren's website http://www.multiple-imputation.com for further
information and software sources.
{title:Examples}
{p 4 10 2}
{cmd:. uvis7 regress y x1 x2 x3, gen(ym)}
{p 4 10 2}
{cmd:. mvis7 x1 x2 x3 using imputed, m(5)}
{p 4 10 2}
{cmd:. mvis7 x1 x2 x3 using imputed, m(5) cycles(20) cc(x4 x5)}
{p 4 10 2}
{cmd:. mvis7 x1-x5 using imputed, m(10) boot draw(x1 x2 x3) cmd(x1 x2:mlogit, x3:ologit) id(pid) seed(101) genmiss(m_)}
{title:Author}
{p 4 4 2}
Patrick Royston, MRC Clinical Trials Unit, London.{break}
patrick.royston@ctu.mrc.ac.uk
{title:References}
{p 4 8 2}
van Buuren S., H. C. Boshuizen and D. L. Knook. 1999. Multiple imputation of
missing blood pressure covariates in survival analysis.
{it:Statistics in Medicine} {cmd:18}:681-694.
Also see http://www.multiple-imputation.com.
{p 4 8 2}
Carlin J. B., N. Li, P. Greenwood, and C. Coffey. 2003. Tools for analyzing
multiple imputed datasets. {it:Stata Journal} {cmd:3(3)}:226-244.
{p 4 8 2}
Clark T. G. and D. G. Altman. 2003. Developing a prognostic model
in the presence of missing data: an ovarian cancer case-study.
{it:Journal of Clinical Epidemiology} {cmd:56}28-37.
{p 4 8 2}
Royston P. 2004. Multiple imputation of missing values.
{it:Stata Journal} {cmd:4(3)}:227-241.
{title:Also see}
{p 4 13 2}
On-line: help for {help mijoin7}, {help micombine7}, {help miset} and related programs
(if installed).