{smcl}
{* December 2008}{...}
{* Update December 2009}{...}
{hline}
{cmd:help for spwmatrix}
{hline}
{title:Title}
{p 2 8 2}
{bf:spwmatrix --- Generates, imports, and exports spatial weights}
{marker contents}{dlgtab: Table of Contents}
{p 2 16 2}
{p 2}{help spwmatrix##syntax:Syntax}{p_end}
{p 2}{help spwmatrix##description:General description}{p_end}
{p 2}{help spwmatrix##options:Description of the options}{p_end}
{p 2}{help spwmatrix##examples:Examples}{p_end}
{p 2}{help spwmatrix##refs:References}{p_end}
{p 2}{help spwmatrix##author:Author information}{p_end}
{p 2}{help spwmatrix##citat:Citation}{p_end}
{hline}
{marker syntax}{title:Syntax}
Import first order contiguity spatial weights (GAL files) from GeoDa
{phang}
{cmd: spwmatrix} {it:gal} {helpb using} {it:gal_filename}{cmd:,} {opt wn:ame(wght_name)} [{help spwmatrix##other_options:Other_options}]
Create geographic and economic distance-based spatial weights using latitude and longitude
{phang}
{cmd: spwmatrix} {it:gecon} {varlist} [{help if}] [{help in}]{cmd:,} {opt wn:ame(wght_name)}
[{opt wt:ype(bin|inv|econ|invecon)} {opt cart} {opt r(#)} {opth db:and(numlist)} {opt alpha(#)}
{opt knn(#)} {cmd:econvar({varname:1})} {opt beta(#)} {opt gwt(gwt_filename)} {opt con:nect}
{help spwmatrix##other_options:Other_options}]
Create social network and socio-economic spatial weights
{phang}
{cmd: spwmatrix} {it:socio} {varname:2} [{help if}] [{help in}]{cmd:,} {opt wn:ame(wght_name)} {opt wt:ype(socnet|socecon)}
[{cmd:idvar({varname:3})} {opt gwt(gwt_filename)} {opt con:nect} {help spwmatrix##other_options:Other_options}]
{phang}
where {it:gal, gecon, and socio} are sub-commands.
{synoptset 32 tabbed}
{synopthdr}
{marker options}
{synoptline}
{syntab:{help spwmatrix##main_options:Main Options}}
{synopt :{opt wn:ame(wght_name)}}indicate a name for the spatial weights matrix{p_end}
{synopt :{opt wt:ype(bin|inv|econ|invecon|socnet|socecon)}}request binary, distance decay, economic distance, inverse economic distance,
social network, or socio-economic spatial weights{p_end}
{synopt :{opt alpha(#)}}indicate the value of the dampening parameter; default is {opt alpha(1)}{p_end}
{synopt :{opth db:and(numlist)}}indicate a distance band or cut-off{p_end}
{synopt :{opt cart}}use Cartesian coordinates (projected latitudes and longitudes){p_end}
{synopt :{opt r(#)}}indicate the earth radius value to be used in case of spherical coordinates;
default is r(6371.009), i.e 6371.009 km{p_end}
{synopt :{opt knn(#)}}request nearest neighbor spatial weights{p_end}
{synopt :{cmd: econvar({varname:1})}}request economic or inverse economic distance spatial weights{p_end}
{synopt :{opt beta(#)}}specify the coefficient beta for the exponential function{p_end}
{synopt :{cmd:idvar({varname:3})}}specify the identifier variable{p_end}
{synopt :{opt gwt(gwt_filename)}}save the spatial weights in sparse form to a text file{p_end}
{synopt :{opt con:nect}}display connectivity information about the spatial weights{p_end}
{marker other_options}
{synoptline}
{syntab:{help spwmatrix##oth_options:Other Options}}
{synopt :{opt m:ataf}}save the spatial weights and the eigenvalues to Mata files{p_end}
{synopt :{opt eignv:al(eignv_name)}}specify a column vector name to hold the eigenvalues{p_end}
{synopt :{opth eignvar(newvar)}}specify a variable name to hold the eigenvalues{p_end}
{synopt :{opt row:stand}}row-standardize the spatial weights{p_end}
{synopt :{opt matlab(dat_filename)}}export the spatial weights to a .dat (text) file for use in {cmd:Matlab}{p_end}
{synopt :{opt replace}} overwrite existing {newvar}, {it:gwt_filename}, and {it:dat_filename} as well as {it:wght_name} and {it:eignv_name}
if {opt mataf} is specified{p_end}
{synopt :{opt favor(speed|space)}}favor speed or space{p_end}
{synoptline}
{p2colreset}{...}
{marker description}{dlgtab:Description}
{pstd}
{cmd:spwmatrix} creates distance based spatial weights and imports first-order contiguity spatial weights (.gal files saved in sparse form) created
using the GeoDa software (see http://geodacenter.asu.edu). {cmd:spwmatrix} also generates economic distance spatial weights based on an economic
variable (see Fingleton and Le Gallo, 2008) and social network and socio-economic spatial weights based on a socio-economic variable
(See Anselin and Bera, 1998). Optionally, created and imported spatial weights are exported to a .dat file for use in Matlab. Created spatial
weights may also be exported to a .gwt file for use in GeoDa. Ultimately, the requested spatial weights are delivered as a Stata matrix loaded in memory
or as a permanent Mata file. When creating distance-related spatial weights, {cmd:spwmatrix} uses either the straight-line (crow-fly) Euclidean
distance or the Great Circle distance depending on whether the latitudes and longitudes supplied in {varlist} are projected or not.
{pstd}
Spatial weights matrices created or imported by {cmd:spwmatrix} may be used by other user-written commands requiring a spatial weights matrix.
{marker main_options}{dlgtab:Main Options}
{phang}
{opt wname(wght_name)} specifies a name for the spatial weights matrix to be created. This option is required.
{phang}
{opt wtype(bin|inv|econ|invecon|socnet|socecon)} indicates whether binary, distance decay, economic distance, inverse economic distance,
social network, or socio-economic spatial weights should be created.
{pmore}Refer to the literature cited below for a background on these spatial weights, except for inverse economic distance spatial
weights which are defined as:
{pmore2}{bf:W_ij = [1/|econvar_i - econvar_j|] * exp(-beta*D_ij)}, where D_ij is the distance between i and j
{phang}
{opt alpha(#)} specifies a value to be used for the dampening parameter when requesting inverse distance spatial weights.
If {opt wtype(inv)} is specified, the default will be {opt alph(1)}. Specifying {opt alpha(2)} requests
inverse distance squared spatial weights.
{phang}
{opth dband(numlist)} indicates a distance cut-off to be used beyond which no spatial autocorrelation is assumed. This option is required when option
{opt wtype(bin)} is specified. Following the literature (see Boarnet et al., 2006) , option {opt dband(numlist)} is not required when
an inverse distance weights matrix is requested. When {opth dband(numlist)} is specified, by default, the distance unit is assumed to be
kilometers, but that can be overriden with {opt cart} or {opt r(#)}.
{phang}
{opt cart} indicates that the latitudes and longitudes supplied in {varlist} are projected and that, in generating the spatial weights, Euclidean or
crow-fly distance should be calculated. By default, the Great Circle distance is calculated. For more details, see the help file for {helpb nearstat}.
{phang}
{opt r(#)} indicates the value to be used for the Earth radius or mean radius in case of spherical coordinates.
The Earth radius usually refers to various fixed distances and to various mean radii since only a sphere has a true radius.
Fortunately, the numerical differences among different radii vary by far less than one percent, making the choice of {bf:#}
less of a concern.
{pmore}{bf:N.B.:} As indicated above, by default, the distance unit for {opth dband(numlist)} is assumed to be kilometers. If you want the unit to
be miles, then you must specfiy {opt r(3958.761)}.
{pmore}Options {opt r(#)} and {opt cart} may not be combined.
{phang}
{opt knn(#)} requests nearest neighbor spatial weights and indicates the number of nearest neighbors to be used.
Option {opt knn(#)} may not be combined with either {opt wtype()} or {opt dband()}.
{phang}
{cmd:econvar({varname:1})} specifies the name of the economic variable to be used in creating economic or inverse economic distance spatial weights.
{phang}
{opt beta(#)} specifies a value to be used for the beta coefficient. The default is {opt beta(100)}. You might want to choose # so that
the spatial weights matrix does not contain any rows with elements summing up to zero.
{phang}
{cmd:idvar({varname:3})} specifies the identifier variable (with values varying from 1 to N) to be used when creating social network
spatial weights. The variable holding the groups or the networks should be supplied with {varname:2}. {opt idvar()} is required when
{opt wtype(socnet)} is specified to request social network spatial weights. For instance, you can generate spatial weights based on
the idea that two or more households are considered neighbors if they belong to the same village. In this case,
{varname:3} would contain the household indentification numbers and {varname:2} would take on the village names or identification numbers.
{phang}
{opt gwt(gwt_filename)} requests that the generated spatial weights be written in sparse form to the text file {it:gwt_filename.gwt}
for use in GeoDa. Prior to using the .gwt file in GeoDa, a header line containing 0, the number of observations, name of a shapefile,
and the key variable should be inserted. This can be done in Notepad.
{phang}
{opt connect} requests that connectivity information such as sparseness, average number of neighbors, etc... for the created spatial weights be displayed.
{marker oth_options}{dlgtab:Other Options}
{phang}
{marker mataf}{opt mataf} requests that the spatial weights (and the eigenvalues if {opt eignval()} is specified) be saved to permanent Mata files. By default,
the spatial weights matrix and its eigenvalues are created as Stata matrices temporarily loaded in memory. However, if size of the spatial weights matrix
to be created or imported exceeds the {help matsize} limit of your Stata flavor and option {opt mataf} is not specified, the spatial weights matrix and
its eigenvalues will automatically be saved to Mata files. In such a case, the names suppplied with options {opt wname()} and {opt eignval()} will be
suffixed with "_n" to avoid replacing existing files. For example, if you specify {opt wname(mywght)}, then the Mata file {it:mywght_n} will be created.
{pmore}{bf:N.B.:} Unless your goal is to generate a spatial weights matrix to be used with {cmd:spatreg}, in which a case you should also specify {opt eignval()},
I recommend specifying option {opt mataf} always.
{phang}
{opt eignval(eign_name)} specifies that the spatial weights matrix eigenvalues be written to the {it:N x 1} vector or file {it:eign_name}.
{phang}
{marker eigv}{opth eignvar(newvar)} specifies a variable name to hold the eigenvalues.
{phang}
{marker rowst}{opt rowstand} requests that the spatial weights matrix be row-standardized. {cmd:spwmatrix} will deny this request if elements of at least one
row sum up to zero. When this is the case, the indexes of such rows will be listed.
{phang}
{opt matlab(dat_filename)} specifies that the spatial weights matrix (generated or imported) be written to the text file {it:dat_filename.dat}
for use in Matlab. To use the file in Matlab, you code:
{pmore}{bf: load dat_filename.dat;}
{pmore}{bf: W=dat_filename(:,:);}
{phang}
{opt replace} overwrites existing {newvar}, {it:dat_filename}, and {it:gwt_filename} and existing {it:wght_name} and {it:eign_name} if {opt mataf} is specified.
{phang}
{opt favor(speed|space)} instructs {cmd:spwmatrix} to favor speed or space when performing all calculations.
{opt favor(speed)} is the default. This option provides a tradeoff between speed and memory use. See {help mata_set:[M-3] mata set}.
{marker examples}{dlgtab:Examples}
{phang}
1) Create a row-standardized binary spatial weights matrix assuming spherical coordinates and a distance cut-off of 10 miles
{pmore}{cmd:. spwmatrix gecon latitude longitude, wn(wbin) dist(bin) db(0 10) ///}{p_end}
{cmd:r(3958.761) row}
{synoptline}
{phang}
2) Generate a spatial weights matrix under the assumptions above and save both the weights matrix and its eigenvalues to Mata files
{it: wbin} and {it:eignwbin}, and export the weights matrix to the text file {it:wghtotxt.dat}
{pmore}{cmd:. spwmatrix gecon latitude longitude, wn(wbin) dist(bin) dband(0 10) ///}{p_end}
{cmd:r(3958.761) rowstand eignval(eignwbin) mataf matlab(wghtotxt)}
{synoptline}
{phang}
3) Generate an inverse distance squared spatial weights matrix using projected latitudes and longitudes
{pmore}{cmd:. spwmatrix gecon latitude longitude, wname(winvsq) wtype(inv) ///}{p_end}
{cmd:alpha(2) dband(0 100) cart }
{phang}
Here the distance cut-off unit is assumed to be the same as that of the projected latitudes and longitudes.
{synoptline}
{phang}
4) Generate an economic distance spatial weights matrix using employment as the economic variable
{pmore}{cmd:. spwmatrix gecon latitude longitude, wn(wecon) wtype(econ) ///}{p_end}
{cmd:econvar(employment) rowstand}
{synoptline}
{phang}
5) Generate an inverse economic distance spatial weights matrix using income as the economic variable
{pmore}{cmd:. spwmatrix gecon latitude longitude, wn(winvecon) wtype(invecon) econvar(income) rowstand}{p_end}
{synoptline}
{phang}
6) Import a first order contiguity spatial weights matrix created in GeoDa to be used in {cmd:Stata}
{pmore}{cmd:. spwmatrix gal using C:\data\wcontig.gal, wname(wcontig) rowstand}{p_end}
{phang}
Note that the gal extension is required for {cmd:spwmatrix} to locate the file. Also, the identifier variable supplied
to GeoDa when creating the spatial weights should take on values ranging from 1 to N, where N is the number of observations.
But, the header line in the GeoDa .gal file needs not be removed.
{synoptline}
{phang}
7) Import a first order contiguity spatial weights matrix created in GeoDa and save it to a .dat file to be used in Matlab
{pmore}{cmd:. spwmatrix gal using C:\data\wcontig.gal, wname(wcontig) matlab(wcontig)}{p_end}
{synoptline}
{phang}
8) Generate a row-standardized 5-nearest neighbor spatial weights matrix
{pmore}{cmd:. spwmatrix gecon latitude longitude, wname(wknn5) knn(5) rowstand}{p_end}
{synoptline}
{phang}
9) Generate a socio-economic spatial weights matrix
{pmore}{cmd:. spwmatrix socio village_id, wname(socecon_wght) row wtype(socecon)}
{synoptline}
{phang}
10) Generate a social network spatial weights matrix (e.g., households are considered neighbors if they belong to the same village)
{pmore}{cmd:. spwmatrix socio village_id, wname(socnet_wght) wtype(socnet) idvar(hhid)}
{synoptline}
{marker refs}{title:References}
{bf:Anselin, L, and A. Bera}. 1998. "Spatial Dependence in Linear Regression Models with an Introduction to Spatial Econometrics."
In A. Ullah and D.E. Giles (Eds), {it:Handbook of Applied Economic Statistics}. New York: Marcel Dekker, pp.237-89.
{bf:Boarnet MG, Chalermpong S, Geho E}. 2006 "Specification Issues in Models of Population and Employment Growth.
{it:Papers in Regional Science} 84: 21–46.
{bf:Fingleton. B. and J. Le Gallo}. 2008. "Estimating Spatial Models with Endogenous Variables, a Spatial Lag and Spatially
Dependent Disturbances: Finite Sample Properties ", {it:Papers in Regional Science} 87(3): 319-339.
{bf:Wikipedia}. 2008. {it:Earth Radius}. {browse "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_radius#Mean_radii":http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_radius#Mean_radii.}
{bf:--------} {it:Great-Circle Distance}. {browse "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great-circle_distance":http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great-circle_distance}
{marker author}{title:Author}
{p 4 4 2}{hi: P. Wilner Jeanty}, Dept. of Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics,
The Ohio State University{break}
{p 4 4 2}Email to {browse "mailto:jeanty.1@osu.edu":jeanty.1@osu.edu} for any comments or suggestions.
{marker citat}{title:Citation}
Users please cite this software as follows:
{bf:Jeanty, P.W.}, 2010. {bf:spwmatrix}: Stata module to create, import, and export spatial weights. Available from http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s457111.html.
{title:Also see}
{p 4 13 2}Online: {helpb nearstat}, {helpb spwmatfill}, {helpb splagvar}, {helpb anketest}, and {helpb spatwmat} (if installed)