{smcl}
{* 9aug2004}{...}
{hline}
help for {hi:circwwmardia}
{hline}
{title:Wheeler-Watson-Mardia test for circular data}
{p 8 17 2}
{cmd:circwwmardia}
{it:varlist}
[{cmd:if} {it:exp}]
[{cmd:in} {it:range}]
{cmd:, by(}{it:byvar}{cmd:)}
{title:Description}
{p 4 4 2}
{cmd:circwwmardia} carries out a homogeneity test due to Wheeler and Watson
(1964) and Mardia (1972) for circular variables in {it:varlist} with scales
between 0 and 360 degrees. The values of each {it:varname} are grouped
according to the {it:r} (2 or more) distinct values of {it:byvar}. The
hypothesis under test is that the distributions so defined are identical. The
test statistic is based on the circular ranks of the data, 2 * pi * rank /
{it:n}, where rank varies from 1 to the number of values {it:n}.
{p 4 4 2}
The W_r statistic can be compared with a chi-square distribution with
2{it:r} - 2 degrees of freedom so long as there are 10 or more values in each
group. Randomisation is recommended otherwise to get an estimate of the
{it:P}-value. However, {cmd:circwwmardia} carries out the chi-square
calculation regardless and the onus is on the user to identify examples with
small group sizes and take appropriate action. A tabulation of group
frequencies should help here.
{p 4 4 2}
Note that allowing a {it:varlist} is a convenience to allow many tests from a
single command: the tests are separate and users searching for significant
results are urged to consider carefully what they are doing.
{title:Remarks}
{p 4 4 2}This test is called the Mardia-Watson-Wheeler test by Batschelet
(1981) and Kanji (1999).
{title:Options}
{p 4 8 2}
{cmd:by()} indicating grouping is a required option.
{title:Example}
{p 4 4 2}{cmd:. circwwmardia wallasp, by(grade)}
{title:Reference}
{p 4 8 2}Batschelet, E. 1981. {it:Circular statistics in biology.}
London: Academic Press.
{p 4 8 2}Fisher, N.I. 1993. {it:Statistical analysis of circular data.}
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
{p 4 8 2}Kanji, G.K. 1999. {it:100 statistical tests.} London: Sage.
{p 4 8 2}Mardia, K.V. 1972. A multi-sample uniform scores test on a circle
and its parametric competitor.
{it:Journal, Royal Statistical Society Series B} 34: 102-113.
{p 4 8 2}Wheeler, S. and Watson, G.S. 1964. A distribution-free two-sample
test on a circle. {it:Biometrika} 51: 256-257.
{title:Author}
{p 4 4 2}Nicholas J. Cox, University of Durham, U.K.{break}
n.j.cox@durham.ac.uk
{title:Acknowledgments}
{p 4 4 2}Leora Vegosen found a bug.
{title:Also see}
{p 4 13 2}
On-line: help for {help circtwosample}