{smcl}
{* 23 May 2007}{...}
{hline}
help for {hi:firstdigit}
{hline}
{title:First digits of numeric variables}
{p 8 17 2}
{cmd:firstdigit}
{it:varlist}
[{cmd:if} {it:exp}]
[{cmd:in} {it:range}]
[{cmd:,}
{cmdab:all:obs}
{cmdab:per:cent}
]
{p 8 17 2}{cmd:firstdigit}
{it:varname}
[{cmd:if} {it:exp}]
[{cmd:in} {it:range}]
[{cmd:,}
{cmd:by(}{it:byvar}{cmd:)}
{cmdab:miss:ing}
{cmdab:per:cent}
]
{p 4 4 2}{cmd:by ... :} may also be used with {cmd:firstdigit}: see help on
{help by}.
{title:Description}
{p 4 4 2}
{cmd:firstdigit} tabulates and analyses the first digits of numeric variables.
It also tests Benford's law that digits d = 1,..,9 occur with probabilities
log10(1 + 1/d). Thus given data of 12, 345, 6789, etc., it would extract 1, 3,
6, etc., tabulate the frequencies of the digits 1 to 9 and give a chi-square
test of the law. Use {cmd:return list} to see returned results.
{title:Options}
{p 4 8 2}{cmd:allobs} specifies use of the maximum possible number of
observations for each variable. The default is to use only those
observations for which all variables in {it:varlist} are not missing.
{p 4 8 2}{cmd:by()} specifies a variable defining distinct groups for
which statistics should be calculated. {cmd:by()} is allowed only with a
single {it:varname}. The choice between {cmd:by:} and {cmd:by()} is
partly one of precisely what kind of output display is required. The
display with {cmd:by:} is clearly structured by groups while that with
{cmd:by()} is more compact. To show statistics for several variables and
several groups with a single call to {cmd:firstdigit}, the display with
{cmd:by:} is essential.
{p 4 8 2}{cmdab:miss:ing} specifies that with the {cmd:by()} option
observations with missing values of {it:byvar} should be included in
calculations. The default is to exclude them.
{p 4 8 2}{cmd:percent} specifies that observed and expected frequency
distributions should be shown as percents. This naturally has no
effect on the chi-square test which is carried out on the frequencies
themselves.
{title:Examples}
{p 4 8 2}{cmd:. firstdigit myvar}{p_end}
{p 4 8 2}{cmd:. firstdigit myvar, percent}
{title:Author}
{p 4 4 2}Nicholas J. Cox, Durham University{break}
n.j.cox@durham.ac.uk