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help for ^xrigls^ (STB-38: sbe15)
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Reference Interval Estimation by Generalized Least Squares
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^xrigls^ yvar xvar [^in^ range] [^if^ exp] [^,^ major_options minor_options ]
The major_options (most used options), in alphabetic order, are:
^al^pha^(^#^)^ ^ce^ntile^(^# [# [#...]]^)^ ^cv^ ^det^ail ^fp(^[^m:^term^,^] [^s:^term]^)^
where term is of the form [^powers^] # [# ...]|^df^ #
The minor_options (less used options), in alphabetic order, are:
^cova^rs^(^[^m:^mcovars^,^] [^s:^scovars]^)^ ^cy^cles^(^#^)^ ^nogr^aph
^nolea^ve ^nose^lect ^noti^dy ^po^wers^(^powlist^)^
^ro^pts^(^[^m:^mopts^,^] [^s:^sopts]^)^ ^sav^ing^(^filename[^,^ ^replace^]^)^ ^se^
Description
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^xrigls^ calculates reference intervals for yvar based on the xvar- (e.g. age-)
specific mean and standard deviation of yvar. yvar is assumed to be Normally
distributed.
Major options
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^alpha(^#^)^ specifies the significance level for testing between degrees of FP for
the mean and SD curves. Default : 0.05.
^centile(^# [# [#...]]^)^ defines the centiles of yvar|xvar required. Default is
3 and 97 (i.e. a 94% reference interval).
^cv^ models the ^s^ curve as a coefficient of variation.
^detail^ displays the final regression models for the mean and SD curves.
^fp(^[^m:^term^,^] [^s:^term]^)^ specifies fractional polynomial models in xvar for
the mean and SD curves. ^term^ is of form [^powers^] # [# ...]|^df^ #.
The phrase ^powers^ is optional. The powers should be separated by spaces,
for example ^fp(m:powers 0 1, s:powers 2)^. If ^powers^ or ^df^ are not given
for any curve, the default is ^fp(m:df 4,s:df 2)^. ^df^ # specifies that the
degrees of freedom for the best-fitting FP model are to be at most # for
the curve in question. The powers are then determined from the data.
Minor options
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^covars(^[^m:^mcovars^,^] [^s:^scovars]^)^ includes mcovars (scovars) variables as
predictors in the regression model for the mean (SD) curves.
^cycles(^#^)^ determines the number of fitting cycles (fit mean, calculate absolute
residuals, fit absolute residuals, recalculate weights, etc.). The default
value of # is 2: an initial (unweighted) fit for the mean is followed by an
unweighted fit of the absolute residuals; weights are calculated, and one
weighted fit for the mean, one weighted fit for the absolute residuals and
a final weighted fit for the mean are carried out.
^nograph^ suppresses a plot of yvar against xvar with fitted values and reference
limits superimposed. The default is to have the graph.
^noleave^ prevents the creation of new variables. The default (^leave^) causes new
variables, appropriately labelled, containing the estimated mean, SD, Z-
scores for yvar and also the centiles specified in ^centile^, to be created.
^noselect^ specifies that the degree of FP will be that specified in the ^fp^
option. The default is to select a lower order FP if the likelihood ratio
test has P-value < ^alpha^.
^notidy^ preserves the variables created in the routine representing the
fractional polynomials powers of the xvar used in the analysis.
^ropts(^[^m:^mopts]^,^ [^s:^sopts]^)^ determines the regression options for the mean
and SD regression models. Example: ^ropt(m:nocons)^ suppresses the constant
for the mean curve.
^saving(^filename[^, replace^]^)^ saves the graph to a file (see ^nograph^).
^se^ calculates the standard errors of the estimated centile curves.
Remarks
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yvar is assumed to have a normal (Gaussian) distribution. If a constant SD is
assumed, it is estimated by the residual mean square in the usual way. Other-
wise, the SD is estimated by regression of the absolute residuals on an FP in
xvar. The SD's are the predicted values from this regression, multiplied by
the square root of pi/2 (i.e. 1.2533...). Since the correct regression for
yvar should include weights proportional to the reciprocal of the squared SD,
the regression for yvar is repeated using weights equal to the squared recip-
rocal of the fitted SDs. At each iteration, models of lower degree are also
fitted. The FP with the lowest degree (k), for which the FP with degree k+1
is not a significantly better fit, is selected. The selection criteria between
models may be specified.
^xrigls^ displays the deviance (-2 * ln likelihood) for the entire model
(including weights derived from the fitted SD). In general, the lower the
deviance, the better the fit of the model.
Examples
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. ^use auto.dta^
. ^xrigls mpg weight, fp(m:1 3,s:2 2) centile(10 90) cycles(3)^
The FP model with powers (1,3) is used for the mean, and the FP model with
powers (2,2) for the SD. Three cycles are performed. The results are saved in
new variables. A graph of the resulting 10th, 50th and 90th centiles (or 80%
reference interval) is given.
. ^xrigls mpg weight, fp(m:df 2,s:df 2) noselect powers(1 2 3) cv^
The model for the mean of ^mpg^ is the best degree-1 FP function of ^weight^,
and for the CV, the best degree-1 FP function of ^weight^. The chosen powers
will be a subset of {1,2,3}. A graph of the resulting 94% reference interval
and new variables are also given.
. ^xrigls mpg weight, alpha(0.1) fp(m:df 2,s:df 2)^
For both the mean and SD, a selection will be made between the best degree-1
FP function, linear and constant fits using a significance level of 10% in the
the likelihood-ratio tests.
Saved Results
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^xrigls^ is an R-class program and saves in the ^r()^ functions:
^r(dev)^ deviance of final model
^`r(mpow)'^ powers in final FP model for mean curve
^`r(mpow)'^ powers in final FP model for SD curve
Authors
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Patrick Royston
MRC Clinical Trials Unit, UK.
email: patrick.royston@@ctu.mrc.ac.uk
Eileen Wright
University of Strathclyde, UK
email: eileen@@stams.strath.ac.uk
Also see
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Manual: ^[R] fracpoly^
On-line: help for @xriml@